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  • Reading well is time and effort and requires great skill and training.

    In both the summary and the paraphrase we have quoted Curtis’s “clustering together in a dense ball,” a phrase that lies in the middle of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to explain this clustering in just about any language aside from Curtis’s will be pointless since her description is admirably precise.

    Quoting Authoritative Language

    You will would also like to utilize quotations that lend authority to your projects. When quoting a specialist or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to determine background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you have made, and your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. For instance, in an essay that you could write in the importance of reading well, you can make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden:

    It “is a exercise that is noble” writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, “and one that will task the reader a lot more than any exercise that your customs associated with day esteem. A training is required by it such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly because they were written.”

    By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist about the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not merely do you regard reading to be an art that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the known amount of your work.

    You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who’ve written or spoken about the subject of the paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:

    A few scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the expense of this space that is manned and called for an almost exclusive attention to unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be far more cost-effective.

    Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, “It seems to be argued this 1 takes from the other. But before there was a space that is manned, the funding on space science was zero. Now it’s about $500 million a year.”

    Note, first, that into the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to add remarks produced by James Van Allen in to the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy towards the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts about them of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both to make certain that their qualifications to speak about them are recognized to all:

    James Van Allen, discoverer regarding the Earth’s radiation belts .
    Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .

    The phrases in italics are known as appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information regarding a person that could be expressed into the following sentence pattern could be changed to an phrase that is appositive

    James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts.

    James Van Allen has decried the expense for the space program that is manned

    James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the trouble associated with the space program that is manned.

    Use appositives to determine authors that you quote.

    Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences

    Quoting just the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
    while you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which can be especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Guess that while conducting research on the subject of college sports you’ve come across listed here, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of this University of Chicago:

    If athleticism is harmful to students, players, alumni and also the public, it is even worse for the universities and colleges themselves. They would like to be institutions that are educational nevertheless they can not. The story associated with the famous halfback whose only regret, as he bade his coach farewell, was which he hadn’t learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we ought to admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, “friends,” presidents and even professors has had a tendency to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often overlook the known proven fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing additionally the double standard that is educational exist with no knowledge while the tacit approval, at the least, associated with colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as “faculty representatives” from the college boards that are athletic. 4

    Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words which will enliven your discussion. You might want to quote part of the following sentence:

    These gentry often overlook the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.

    Incorporating the Quotation to the Flow of Your Own Sentence
    Once you’ve selected the passage you need to quote, work the material into the paper in as natural and fluid a fashion as you possibly can. Here’s how we would quote Hutchins:

    Robert Hutchins, a former president of this University of Chicago, asserts that “a college really should not be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.”

    Keep in mind that we have used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And now we’ve used only the part of the paragraph – a single clause – that we thought memorable adequate to quote directly.

    Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
    A quoted sentence should never stand by itself – such as the following example:

    Various people from the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. “These gentry often disregard the fact that a college really should not be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.” But this type or kind of thinking is detrimental to the university and also worse when it comes to athletes.

    Even you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other area of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you can write:

    in accordance with Robert Hutchins, “These gentry often overlook the undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.”

    “These gentry,” asserts Robert Hutchins, “often overlook the fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.”

    Another alternative would be to introduce a quotation that is sentence-long a colon:

    But Robert Hutchins disagrees: “These gentry often forget the proven fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.”

    Use colons and to introduce quotations that are indentedsuch as the examples above).

    When attributing sources, you will need to vary the conventional “states,” “writes,” “says,” an such like. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: “asserts,” “argues,” “maintains,” “insists,” “asks,” and even “wonders.”

    Using Ellipsis Marks
    Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage although not its middle – as was the scenario when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Listed here is the main paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a sentences that are few

    to learn well, that is, to read through true books in a spirit that is true is a noble exercise, and something that will task the reader a lot more than any exercise that the customs associated with day esteem. It takes an exercise including the athletes underwent, the intention that is steady associated with the whole life to this object. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5